Wooden and Porcelain House Wiring Cleats

 

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The Electrical Age was born in 1881 when Thomas Edison invented the incandescent lamp.  The history of electric power transmission can be found in my book, Multipart Porcelain Insulators, 2nd edition.  Porcelain wiring cleats were not used in the very early days of house wiring.  They simply strung insulated-covered wires along the walls using wooden knobs and blocks of wood to attach the wires and ran them to the center of the room to drop a light down from the ceiling.  Houses often only had one light bulb per room and only the important rooms had a need for expensive light bulbs.  It was more of a novelty.  Electricity quickly caught one and prices of bulbs, wiring, and electric power dropped allowing more and more people to afford the luxury of electric light.  Wooden cleats, knobs, light bulb holders, and other wooden electrical devices were widely used and often resulted in fires from the early use of electricity.  In less than 10 years it became obvious that electric power and light bulbs were something more than a fad.  By 1891, the insurance companies refused to tolerate wooden wiring devices because of the fire hazard.  Porcelain wiring devices had to be used to get insurance.  The produced a huge demand for porcelain wiring devices with several manufacturers offering to meet the demand.  The National Board of Fire Underwriters founded the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL) in 1894 to formulate safety standards for the industry and in 1897, the first National Electrical Code was published.  Here are a few wooden wiring devices from my collection.

 

Old wooden light socket showing two top and bottom.

In more wealthy homes and offices, house wiring was hidden behind moldings.  Grooves were cut in the base molding for the wires and simply covered with a decorative cap.

Wooden cleats were made of one piece was wood with grooves cut in for the wires.  It was nailed against the wall with the wall acting as the back to keep the wire in the groove.  However, this did not provide clamping of the wire to keep it taught and straight.

   

Two pages from the 1890 E. S. Greeley & Co. catalog showing wooden cleats and early porcelain cleats with optional porcelain backing.

 

Wooden wiring knobs are 1-1/8" in diameter by 1-1/2" tall.  Tiny wooden wiring cleats are 7/8" long and were found in an old estate on Cape Cod.

This old wooden cleat still has the original paint and square nails.

These cleats are 4-3/4" long.  One was found by David Dahle in an old building in South Dakota.

 

The two small cleats (left) are 2-1/2" long.  Both came from Fred Richardson who found them in a ghost town near Camp Bird Mine, CO.

Paul Greaves found the two larger cleats (right) in an old house in Eureka, CA.  The one with the nail is 3-1/2" long and the other is 3-7/8" long.

The first manufacturers of electrical porcelain were Empire China Works in Greenpoint, NY (Brooklyn - 1889); Union Porcelain Works in Greenpoint, NY (Brooklyn -- 1890).  Others quickly followed their lead was Pass & Seymour in Syracuse, NY (1891); Imperial Porcelain Works in Trenton, NJ (1891); R. Thomas & Sons in East Liverpool, OH (1891); Peru Porcelain Works in Peru, IN (1892); General Electric in Schenectady, NY (1892); Conover Insulator Co. in Cincinnati, OH (1892) [see patents 479,134 and 520,412]; Hammond Cleat & Insulator Co. (1893) [see 1893 patents 511,611 and 511,612].  Many other companies started making electrical porcelain in later years.  The business became quite competitive with many companies going bankrupt, buying out others, and later transforming their manufacturing as times changed.  The business had great fluctuations in demand and suffered under organized labor demands since the manufacturing of electrical porcelain is very labor intensive.

The first wiring cleat was patent No. 411,801 in 1889.  No examples exist.  The next patent was 422,651 in 1890.  The ends were obviously fragile and not specimens exist.  Patent 444,317 granted in 1891 is a one piece cleat -- no specimens exist.  Patent 458,964 resembles the common two-part cleat, but a bit more complex -- no specimens exist.   Finally, patent No. 476,827 granted to Pass & Seymour (Syracuse, NY) in 1892 represents the typical wiring cleat.  That patent is represented in cleats p3 and p4.  Both are very rare.  The most famous and widely used were the B & D cleats based on patents 505,215 and 505,912 granted to Elisha Buffington in 1893 and 544,501 in 1895 with 50% rights assigned on all three patents to Albert Dow.  The three patents were widely licensed to other companies to produce porcelain cleats.  The most notable companies were Imperial Porcelain Works and General Electric.  Patent 505,215 was particularly important in that it provided a spacer or gap across the bottom half of the cleat to allow for nailing against irregularly shaped (not flat) walls and rafters, which prevented the cleat from breaking when it was nailed in place.  Patent 505,912 provided a different solution to this problem by projections in the bottom half outside the holes to keep the cleat away from an irregular surface.  Other companies finally found a way around these B & D patents by adding circular bosses around the nail holes, which held the cleat away from the irregular surface.

Perhaps the prettiest cleat with a dark blue sponge glaze.

For a list of all cleat patents: Patents for Cleats

For a list of insulator related COMPANIES, click on the link.

For a complete database of nearly 3,000 insulator related patents including more than 300 lightning rod related patents click on this link: Patents

To see images of cleats in trade journals and catalogs, click on the links.

 

Below is a list of more than 150 known cleats most of which are in my collection.  Please report any new ones you have.

 

Click on link in the first column to see photos of each cleat.

Or click on this link to see 7 pages with all the cleat photos.

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Photo  MARKING Marking Type Glazed No. of Wires Pair Hole Support Patent Company Notes
a1 A (script style, Akron I & M Co., found at Colonial; piece) r-e Y   round Akron Insulator & Marble Co.  
a2 A M C (found at Akron Marble Co. site in Akron, OH) emb Y 2 Y half round Akron Marble Co. greenish gray
a3 A M C (found at Akron Marble Co. site in Akron, OH) emb Y 2   half round   Akron Marble Co. white
a4 AMERICAN r-e Y 3 Y round American Porcelain Co.  
a5 AMERICAN r-e Y 3 Y square American Porcelain Co.  
a6 ANCHOR logo in circle r-e Y 2 Y square Anchor Electric Co.  
a7 ANCHOR logo in square r-e N 2   flush   Anchor Electric Co.  
a18 ANCHOR logo in square r-e Y 2   flush   Anchor Electric Co.  
a8 ANCHOR logo emb Y 2 Y round Anchor Electric Co.  
a9 A.P.CO. r-e N 2 Y round Anderson Porcelain Co.  
a16 A P Co r-e N 2 Y round Anderson Porcelain Co.  
a17 A P Co r-e N 3 round Anderson Porcelain Co.  
a10 A.S.P. CO. r-e Y 2 round   Akron Smoking Pipe Co.  
a15 A.S.P. Co. r-e N 2 Y round Akron Smoking Pipe Co. Rick Soller
a11 A.S.P. CO. (broken right) r-e Y 3   round   Akron Smoking Pipe Co.  
a12 A.S.P. CO. r-e N 3 Y round Akron Smoking Pipe Co.  
a13 ASP. CO. r-e N   Akron Smoking Pipe Co. Bill Sutliff
a14 A. W. (hollow inside for mating with bottom; broken left) emb N 3   half round   ??  
b1 B & D emb Y 2   round 505,215 505,912 Buffinton & Dow patent  
b11 B & D emb N 2 round 505,215 505,912 Buffinton & Dow patent  
b15 B & D emb N 2 round 505,215 505,912 Buffinton & Dow patent  embossing slightly different
b14 B & D r-e N 2 round 505,215 505,912 Buffinton & Dow patent  
b13 B&LH CO r-e N 2 square ??  
b10 B. & T. r-e Y 2 Y round Brunt & Thompson embossing slightly different
b2 BOSS (broken left) r-e N 2   square   Electrical Specialty Mfg. Co. broken left side
b3 BOSS (chipped left) r-e N 3   square   Electrical Specialty Mfg. Co. chipped left
b4 BRUNT r-e N 2 Y round Brunt Porcelain Co.  
b5 BRUNT r-e Y 2 Y round Brunt Porcelain Co.  
b6 BRUNT (backward N) r-e N   Brunt Porcelain Co. Bill Sutliff
b7 BRUNT. r-e N   Brunt Porcelain Co. Bill Sutliff
b8 BRUNT r-e N 3   square   Brunt Porcelain Co.  
b9 BRUNT r-e Y 2 Y flush Brunt Porcelain Co.  
b12 BRUNT r-e Y 2 Y flush Brunt Porcelain Co.  
c1 C in a circle 334 emb N 2 Y   ??
c2 C IN SQUARE (COOK) r-e Y 2   flush   ??  
c3 CENCO r-e N 2 Y round ??  
c4 C.F.C. 9172 (patent 518,301) emb Y 2 Y half round 518,301 ??  
c5 CGE. 1740 r-e Y 2 Y recessed ??  
c12 C. I. CO. r-e Y 2 round Colonial Insulator Co.
c10 CINCO r-e N 2   square   ??  
c6 C.O.P. emb N 2 Y round Carey Ohio Porcelain Co.  
c11 C P Co r-e N 3   round   Cook Pottery Co.  
c7 Crown logo r-e Y 2 Y recessed ??  
c8 C S I Co (Colonial; broken left) r-e N 2   round   Colonial Sign & Insulator Co. broken left side
c9 C.S.I.Co. r-e Y 2 round Colonial Sign & Insulator Co.
d1 DAVIDSON emb N 3 Y round Davidson Porcelain Co.  
d7 DAVIDSON emb Y 2 Y round Davidson Porcelain Co.  
d2 Diamond logo r-e Y 2 Y flush Diamond Porcelain Co.  
d3 Diamond logo r-e N 2 Y flush Diamond Porcelain Co.  
d4 Diamond logo   3     Diamond Porcelain Co. Arlen Rienstra
d12 D. P. Co. (inside a diamond) r-e N 2 N flush Davidson Porcelain Co.
d13 D. S. Co. r-e N 2 N round Davidson & Stevenson Porcelain Co.
d5 DUGGAN / PATD / NOV 14 1893 (right of hole) NO. 3 r-e Y 2 Y flush 508,687 Imperial Porcelain Works  
d6 DUGGAN / PAT / NOV / 14 1893 - NO. 1 r-e   508,687 Imperial Porcelain Works Arlen Rienstra
d8 DUGGAN / PAT NOV / 14 1893 (right of hole) NO.3 (backwards 4) r-e Y 2 Y flush 508,687 Imperial Porcelain Works Rick Soller
d9 DUGGAN / PAT NOV / 14 1893 (right of hole) NO 3 r-e Y 2 Y flush 508,687 Imperial Porcelain Works Rick Soller
d11 DUGGAN / PATD / NOV 14 1893 (right of hole) NO 3 r-e Y 2 Y flush 508,687 Imperial Porcelain Works
d10 DUGGAN / PAT. NOV / 14 1893 (below hole) NO 4 r-e Y 1 Y flush 508,687 Imperial Porcelain Works
e1 EE.P Co. emb N 2 Y round East End Pottery Co.  
e2 E. ENG. CO r-e Y 2 Y flush Electrical Engineers Equipment Co.  
e3 EP CO (sans serif) r-e N 2 Y flush Electrical Porcelain Co.  
e4 EP. Co (serif letters) r-e N 2   round   Electrical Porcelain Co.  
e5 E.P.CO. (broken left) r-e Y 2   round   Electrical Porcelain Co.  
e6 EPco ("co" at top of EP; sans serif) r-e N 2 Y round Electrical Porcelain Co.  
e7 EPco ("co" at bottom of EP; sans serif) r-e N 2   round   Electrical Porcelain Co.  
e9 EPco r-e Y 2 round Electrical Porcelain Co. Rick Soller
e8 EXEMPLAR r-e N 2 Y square ??
e10 EXEMPLAR r-e N 3 Y square ??
f1 F emb Y 3 Y square Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.  
f2 F emb N 3 Y round Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.  
f3 F (top half as tall as two cleats) emb Y 2   round   Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.  
f4 F (2 fused together) emb Y 2 * round Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.  
f11 F r-e N 2 Y round Findlay Electric Porcelain Co. Rick Soller
f12 FAIENCE (inside a diamond) r-e Y 2 Y round Hartford Faience Co.
f5 FEDCO r-e Y 2   square   Federal Porcelain Co.  
f16 FEDCO emb N 3   round   Federal Porcelain Co.  
f6 FINDLAY r-e Y 2 Y square Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.  
f13 FINDLAY r-e N 2 Y square Findlay Electric Porcelain Co. Rick Soller
f7 FINDLAY emb Y 2 Y square Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.  
f15 FINDLAY emb N 2 Y square Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.
f14 FINDLAY emb Y 3 Y square Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.
f8 FINDLAY (top half as tall as two cleats) emb Y 2   square   Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.  
f9 FINDLAY r-e Y 3   round   Findlay Electric Porcelain Co.  
f10 FR in a triangle r-e Y 2 Y flush ??  
g1 G. C. F. CO. r-e N 2   round   ??  
g2 G.E. CO. 9172 / PAT. SEPT. 1 '91 emb Y 3   half round 458,964 General Electric Co.  
g3 G.E. CO. U.S.A. / CAT. 9172 / PAT. SEPT 1 '91 emb Y 3 Y half round 458,964 General Electric Co.  
g4 GEC. 9172 / USA emb Y 3 Y half round General Electric Co.  
g5 G.E.C. 9172 emb Y 3 Y half round General Electric Co.  
g18 G.E.C. 9172 (variant) emb Y 3 Y half round General Electric Co.  
g14 G.E.C. 9172 emb Y 2 Y half round General Electric Co. dark blue sponge glaze
g17 G.E.C. 9325 emb Y 3  Y half round General Electric Co. 3-7/8" long
g6 G.E.CO. 9171 / PAT. SEPT. 1' 91 emb Y 3   458,964 General Electric Co.
g7 G E. CO. 25704 emb N 3 Y half round General Electric Co. one part broken
g19 G E. CO. 25704 / PAT. SEPT. 1', 91 emb Y 3 half round 458,964 General Electric Co.
g8 G P Co. r-e N 2 Y round General Porcelain Co.  
g13 G P Co r-e N 2 Y round General Porcelain Co.  
g9 G P Co. r-e N 3 Y round General Porcelain Co.  
g10 G P CO r-e Y 2 Y round General Porcelain Co.  
g11 G P Co r-e Y 2 Y round General Porcelain Co.  
g12 GLOBE r-e Y 3   round   Globe Porcelain Co.  
g15 GLOBE r-e N 3 round Globe Porcelain Co.
g16 GLOBE r-e N 2 Y round Globe Porcelain Co.
g20 GLOBE r-e Y 2 Y round Globe Porcelain Co.
h1 H. P. Co. emb N 2   square   Akron High-Potential Porcelain Co.  
h3 HAMMOND CLEAT (end semicircle) PAT.MCH.1'92 / AND PAT.APL'D FOR emb Y 2 --- flush Hammond Cleat & Insulator Co.
h2 HUDSON r-e N 2 Y round Hudson Porcelain Co.  
h4 HUDSON (smaller rectangle) r-e N 2 round Hudson Porcelain Co.
i1 I X L r-e Y 2 round ??
k1 KNOX (in a rectangle) - 334 emb N 2 Y round Knox Porcelain Corp.  
k2 KNOX (in a rectangle) emb N 2   round   Knox Porcelain Corp.  
k4 KNOX (in a rectangle) r-e Y 2 round Knox Porcelain Corp.  
k3 K T P. CO. (faint marking) r-e N 2 round Rick Soller
m1 MACOMB (angles left) r-e N 2 Y round Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
m2 MACOMB (angles left) r-e N 3 Y round Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
m3 MACOMB (angles right) r-e N 3   round   Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
m4 MACOMB (angles right; 3/4" wide) r-e N 3   round   Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
m5 MACOMB (upsidedown, angles left) r-e N 2 Y round Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
m6 MACOMB (in a rectangle) r-e N 2 Y round Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
m7 M & C r-e Y 2   round   ??   
m8 MONOWATT r-e N 2 Y round ??  
m9 MICO emb N 2 round Mogadore Insulator Co. Rick Soller
m10 MIS inside a diamond r-e N 2 Y round ?? Rick Soller
n1 (no name) ---- N 2 Y square  
n2 (no name) ---- N 3 Y square  
n3 (no name) ---- Y 2   half round      
n4 (no name) ---- Y 2   flush      
n12 (no name) - 1 part ---- Y 1   flush   1" x 3"; 3/4" hole  
n13 (no name) - 2 part ---- Y 1  Y flush   1" x 2-1/2"; 3/4" hole  
n14 (no name) - 2 part ---- Y 1  Y flush   3/4" x 2"; 1/4" hole  
n5 NCO emb Y 2   round   National Electric Porcelain Co.  
n6 NCO emb N 3   round   National Electric Porcelain Co.  
n7 NCO emb N 2 Y round National Electric Porcelain Co.  
n11 N. E. T / T. CO. r-e Y 2 Y flush New England Tel & Tel Co. Andrew Gibson
n8 NEW ENGLAND r-e Y 2     ?? Bill Sutliff
n9 NEW / JERSEY r-e N 3 Y round ??  
n10 N. P. CO. emb N   ?? Bill Sutliff
o1 O. I. Co. (square hole supports) emb N 2 Y square ??  
02 O P CO emb N 3 Y comet Ohio Porcelain Co.
p1 P (in a circle) emb N 2 Y round Porcelainn Products, Inc.  
p18 P. A. Co r-e Y 2 round Pettingell-Andrews Co.  
p2 P & S in rectangle (faint marking, over A.P. CO.) emb N 3 Y round Pass & Seymour  
p3 P & S (underside curved in to fit bottom half extending up) [1/2 x 3-1/8] emb N 2   round   Pass & Seymour  
p22 P & S (underside curved in to fit bottom half extending up) [9/16x3-3/16] emb N 2 Y round Pass & Seymour
p23 P & S (underside curved in to fit bottom half extending up) [1/2 x 3-1/8] emb Y 3 Y round Pass & Seymour
p4 P & S / PAT JUNE 14 1892 (halves curved to fit together) emb / r-e Y 2 Y half round 476,827 Pass & Seymour Patent date under top half
p21 P & S A3 r-e Y 2 Y square Pass & Seymour Only 1/2" wide
p5 PAT. / SEPT. 19-93 / OCT. 3-93 emb Y corrugated   flush 505,215 505,912 broken left side
p6 P.P. Inc. r-e N 2 Y square Porcelain Products, Inc.  
p7 P.P. Inc. r-e Y 3   square   Porcelain Products, Inc.  
p8 P.P. Inc. - No. 334 r-e N 2   square   Porcelain Products, Inc.   
p15 P. P. INC r-e Y 3 Y square Porcelain Products, Inc.  
p16 P. P. INC r-e N 2   square   Porcelain Products, Inc.  
p17 USA (left of hole) PP (center) 337 (right) emb/r-e/emb N 3 square Porcelain Products, Inc. Rick Soller
p9 PERU (marking on bottom) [3/4" x 3-3/8"] r-e Y 2 Y flush Peru Electric Mfg. Co.  
p19 PERU (marking on bottom) [5/8" x 3-1/8"] r-e Y 2 flush Peru Electric Mfg. Co.
p10 PERU (inside a diamond) r-e Y 2   flush   Peru Electric Mfg. Co.  
p20 PERU incuse N 2 Y flush   Peru Electric Mfg. Co.  
p11 PRINGLE r-e Y 2   recessed   Pringle Electrical Mfg. Co.  
p12 PRINGLE (broken left) r-e N 2   recessed   Pringle Electrical Mfg. Co.  
p13 3 PW 334 - U/L (LARGE) emb N 2 Y   ??
p14 3 PW 334 - U/L (SMALL) emb N 2 Y   ??
q1 QUALITY r-e N 2 square ??
r1 R E T P r-e Y 2 Y round ??  
r2 R.E.T.P.Co. r-e Y 2   recessed   ??  
r3 ROYAL r-e Y 2   flush   Royal Electric Mfg. Co.  
r4 R. P. CO. (pair fused together) emb N 2 Y round Ravenswood Porcelain Co. pair fused together 
r5 R T & S CO emb Y 2 Y round R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
r6 R. T. & S. CO. emb Y 3 Y round R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
r7 R. T. & S. CO. emb Y 2   flush   R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
r8 R. T. &. S. CO. emb N 2 round R. Thomas & Sons Co.
s1 S.E.P. emb N 2   round   ??  
s2 SHCo logo (Stewart-Howland Co.; piece found at E.P.Co.) r-e Y   round Steward-Howland Co. piece found at E. P. Co.
s3 SHCo logo (Stewart-Howland Co.; fancy close letters) r-e Y 2 Y round Steward-Howland Co.  
s15 SHCo logo (Stewart-Howland Co.; fancy close letters) r-e N 2 round Steward-Howland Co.  
s4 S.P. CO r-e N 3 Y round   Superior Porcelain Co.  
s12 SP 334 (right of hole) UL (entwined in circle) emb N 2 round Superior Porcelain Co. Rick Soller
s5 SPW 334 - UL emb N 2 Y round Specialty Porcelain Works  
s13 SPW (in a triangle) r-e N 2 Y round Specialty Porcelain Works Rick Soller
s6 STAR logo r-e Y 2 Y round Star Porcelain Co.  
s7 STAR logo (Mogadore, O.) inc Y 2   round   Star Porcelain Co.  
s14 STAR r-e N 2 square Star Porcelain Co.
s16 STAR r-e Y 3 Y round Star Porcelain Co.
s10 SUN emb Y   round Sun Porcelain Co. ?? Jim Colburn
s8 SUPERIOR / NO. 337 emb N 3 Y square Superior Porcelain Co.  
s9 SUPERIOR emb N 2 Y square Superior Porcelain Co.  
s11 SUPERIOR emb N 2 Y flush Superior Porcelain Co. Rick Soller
t1 THOMAS (backward S) r-e Y 2 Y none R. Thomas & Sons Co. Arlene Rienstra
t2 THOMAS r-e Y 2 Y round R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
t3 THOMAS emb Y 3   square   R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
t4 THOMAS emb Y 2 Y square R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
t5 THOMAS emb N 2 Y square R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
t6 THOMAS emb N 2   round   R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
t7 THOMAS (3/4" width) emb Y 2 Y round R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
t8 THOMAS (3/4" width) emb Y 3 Y round R. Thomas & Sons Co.  
t9 THOMAS (SQUARE HOLE SUPPORT) // RT&S CO emb Y 3 Y   R. Thomas & Sons Co.
t10 T.P.CO. r-e Y 2   round   Trenton Porcelain Co.  
t11 TRENLE r-e N 2   square   Trenle Porcelain Co.  
t15 TRENLE r-e N 3 Y square   Trenle Porcelain Co.  
t12 Triangle M (small) r-e N 2   round   Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
t13 Triangle M (large) r-e N 2 Y round Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
t14 Triangle M r-e N 3   round   Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.  
u1 U S Co r-e Y 2   round   Utility Services Co.  
u2 U S Co r-e Y 3   round   Utility Services Co.  
u3 U S Co r-e N 2 Y round   Utility Services Co.  
u4 U. S. Co. r-e N 2 Y round Utility Services Co.  
u6 UNION r-e Y 2 Y round ?? Rick Soller
u5 UNIVERSAL - NO. 334 r-e N 2 Y square Universal Clay Products Co.  
u7 NO (emb) UNIVERSAL (r-e) 334 (emb) [superscript 4] emb/r-e/emb N 2 square Universal Clay Products Co. Rick Soller
u8 NO (emb) UNIVERSAL (r-e) 334 (emb) emb/r-e/emb N 2 square Universal Clay Products Co. Rick Soller
u9 U S. Co r-e Y 2 Y round Utility Services Co. very small "o" in "Co"; only one period after the "S"
w1 WES co 334 (emb. U on end) emb N 2 Y square ??  
w4 W S Co r-e Y 2 Y square ??
w5 W. S. Co. r-e N 2 square ??
w2 W T CO r-e Y 2 round Wheeling Tile Co. Rick Soller
w3 W VA P CO emb N 3 Y round West Virginia Porcelain Co.
x1 XLO emb Y 2   square   ??  

 

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